Boats Corrosion Surveys

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Most of us has been affected by corrosion our boats.

There are different  types of corrosion affecting our boats:

In simple words, Corrosion is the irreversible damage or destruction of a material due to a chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment.

Metal Corrosion is Caused when it reacts with another substance such as oxygen, hydrogen, an electrical current, or even dirt and bacteria. Corrosion can also happen when metals like steel are placed under too much stress causing the material to crack

On boats are mainly three types of corrosion:

Galvanic Corrosion:
It is simply an electrochemical reaction between two or more different metals. The metals must be different because one must be more chemically active (or less stable) than the others for a reaction to take place. When we talk about galvanic corrosion, we’re talking about the electrical exchange. All metals have electrical potential because all atoms have electrons, which have an electrochemical charge. (see

Electrolytic Corrosion:
It is simply a process of accelerated corrosion. In this process, a metallic surface is continuously corroded by other metal it is in contact with, due to an electrolyte and the flow of an electrical current between the two metals, caused from an external source of electromotive force.

Ordinary Corrosion: 
Some times called rust, it is a chemical process which results in the formation of red or orange coating on the surface of metals, this reaction causes damage and disintegration of the metal starting from the portion of the metal exposed to the environment and spreading to the entire bulk of the metal.

ROV Operations by 1 Person

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ROV allows us to do quick and safe underwater surveys, easy deployment, portable and easy to transport:

When planning dives, please consider the following elements:

  • The mission objective.
  • Degree of accuracy required.
  • Current threat level.
  • On-scene conditions.
  • The amount of time plus resources available.

In this video, we will check how a single man underwater survey is carried out.

ROV operations by 1 person (

Current and Flowmeter Surveys

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24 marines team and equipment are ready to record currents and calculate water flows at your location.

By using balance impeller magnetized, producing a magnetic field when rotating which is passed through the cable user display. The unit is calibrated regularly at the factory.

By using electromechanical sensors, we can reduce the cost of flowmeter adquisition and calculations without comprimizing quality and precision.

ROV on Aquaculture Industry

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Since 1961 the Fish consumption has increased, twice as high as the population, according to

The statistics show that aquaculture has its highest peak about 2016 with 171 million tonnes production, so, fish farming has become one of the major contributors to the world food providers, here a few benefits of aquaculture:

  • Increased production of food for human consumption.
  • Substitution of import by local production.
  • High-efficiency protein production.
  • Creation of employment, especially in rural areas.
  • Environmental Friendly.

As the fish demands increase, the need for efficient managing technics is getting higher. Robotics and remotely operated vehicles are playing a great role in this industry, here below some of the benefits using ROVs on aquaculture:

Species Monitoring:

Delta ROV allows fish farming operators to monitor conditions, growth, behavior, and health of the fish stock, with gripper and manipulators ROV can recover dead fishes, samples, etc.

Gear monitoring:

In order to monitor (Nets, Filters, buoys, anchors) and comply with regulatory requirements and monitoring harmful species (sharks, sealions) out of the farm, Delta ROV is ready to operate 24/7 on the fish farms.

With the usage of ROVs, operators can develop methods for increasing efficiency and safety on Aquaculture industry.

Thermo Inspection with Drones

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Thermo cameras allow us to see infrared and thermal energy that is always around us.

Visible Light It is like the tip of the Iceberg, with our eye we just see around 2.5% of the available out there.

We don’t perceive infrared (thermal energy) as they are no visible for our eye, as the spectrum  that we eye can detect is very limited.

Infrared has about 30% of the available light spectrum, see image below:

In simple words, the main differences between visible Light and Thermo Energy:

  • Our eye can see what is reflected from the surface.
  • Thermo energy capture emissivity and reflections.
  • Our eye can see through a glass.
  • Thermo energy cannot pass through glass.

It is very important to understand that Thermo Images are just for Surfaces, It doesn’t penetrate the objects neither bodies.

Every surface has different emissivity, depending on their surfaces.

Shiny surcafes has high reflectivity and low emissivity

Dark (opaque) surfaces has low reflectivity by high Emissivity

In the picture below can be noticed that emissivity is affected by surface colors.

In the Solar Panel generations business, Thermo inspection has a great role.

The more energy the panel absorb, the more efficient it is.

According to statistical analysis from various thermo experts, performing regular Thermo inspections can help to reduce energy loss by 15%, due to Broken cells, dust, and dirt.

As a bonus, we have included the emissivity tables we use for our inspections:


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Why is necessary to conduct rigging surveys?

Rigging surveyor job is to check and review the key components of the boat system to ensure that is fit for purpose.

In general, a Rigging system survey has three objectives:

  1. Check that the system has been regularly inspected and serviced.
  2. Check the states of the sails
  3. Check that the rigging is less than 10 years old.

Regular service periods:

The regular service period is calculated by Insurance companies, flag states, Cost guard, and standards organizations, based on FATIGUE LOAD CYCLE of the rigging. The statistical data shows that rigging failure rates are higher after 10 years.

The picture below shows how a load cycle in the normal operating range, due to the large numbers of such cycles can cause cumulative damage to the material.

The 5 years inspection needs to be done with the mast un-stepped, as it is impossible to check key components (Terminal, plates, buckles, wires, stays, etc.) with the rigging fully un-assembled. Also, NDT (nondestructive Test) as a penetrant liquid test need to complete with the system on the floor.

The 10-year rigging checks need to be completed with all rigging wires replaced, due to the FATIGUE LOAD CYCLES, which normally cause Cracks, deformations that affect the structural properties of the rigging system.

See the video below where you can see many comon failures we have colledted during years of rigging surveys.

The list below shows the most common issues found after rigging collapses:

  1. Terminal and fittings failures
  2. Turn Buckle failures
  3. Mast deformations
  4. Chain Plates failures
  5. Stays (wire) failures
  6. Rod heads

Below few notes from the Rigging experts:

  • Keep your rigging clear of corrosion, ALWAYS
  • Regularly check tension on stays
  • Never remove safety pins from Turnbuckles
  • Recommended to use Split pins.
  • Never replace only one side Stays or Shroud, the other side (older) will be a weak link.
  • If replacing a stay, is recommended to replace the associated turnbuckles.
  • Bring mast down every 5 years for inspection, if needed perform NDT (Nondestructive test)
  • Bring mast down every 10 years for inspection and ALL rigging components replacement.

The US Coast Guard published a Marine Safety Alert 07-09, call SAILBOAT RIGGING DANGER, you can download on the link below, has many useful information and tips for any sailor.

If you have any comments, please write to us.


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Very often we get asked about boat surveys and what are the benefits of doing so, this week we are going to discuss details on the importance of marine surveys.

What is a Marine Survey?

it is a comprehensive check-up for boats, designed to identify existing problems, point out areas to improve, and give a detailed picture of the overall health of the vessel.

The two major reasons to hire a Marine Surveyor are:

1 Get an Unbiassed Assessment

When you are buying a boat, especially second-hand, the current owner may not be aware of any existing problems, if there is any, This is when a marine survey is very important before settlement.

During a repurchase survey the marine surveyor has the opportunity to assess all aspects of the vessel:

  • Structural
  • Mechanical Components
  • Rigging
  • Plumbing
  • Electrical Systems
  • Hull Planking
  • Propulsion System

As a result, the surveyor submits a report, with recommendations and a conclusion, that can help the price negotiation and repairs needed.

2 Get Profesional Valuation

Many marine underwriters (insurers), require a complete survey to be completed prior they will ensure a pre-owned vessel.

A professional marine surveyor will inform whether any repair needed to be completed and the cost of each repair accurately, this information is vital and can be used to determine if the boat is a good value and what is estimated provision in years ahead for upkeep.

Buying a boat is a big step, and a huge investment, a Surveyor will be your best advisor during this process.

Smart Pipe Surveys using Robots

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Now days most survey tasks involve robots that are designed in such way that they remove human intervention from labour intensive and hazardous work environment.

Sometimes they are also used to inspect inaccessible spaces / confines places which are generally impossible to access by humans.

Many pipes comes in the dangerous spaces because they carry toxic chemicals, fluids and most of the time has small internal diameter or bends which become inaccessible to human.

The complex internal geometry and hazard content constraints of pipes demand robots for inspection of such pipes in order to check corrosion level of pipe, recovery of usable parts from pipe interior, sampling of sludge and scale formation on pipe internal surface etc

In 24 Marine we have developed a Pipe Robot that ensure you are getting a pipe survey cost effective and reducing human exposure. we have developed virtual reality pipe inspection, that bring your pipes to real life.

Smart marine surveyors located at Panama, bringing smart technologies to industries.